Preview

Проблемы Эндокринологии

Расширенный поиск

Стратегия профилактики ожирения среди детей школьного возраста (обзор литературы)

https://doi.org/10.14341/probl201662252-60

Полный текст:

Аннотация

Ожирение является одной из наиболее серьезных угроз для здоровья и жизни людей, увеличивая риск возникновения многих заболеваний, включая сахарный диабет 2-го типа, сердечно-сосудистые заболевания, артриты и некоторые формы рака. Это актуальная проблема для Российской Федерации. Каждый второй взрослый в нашей стране имеет повышенную массу тела или ожирение. Однако объективная оценка распространенности этой патологии у детей чрезвычайно затруднена. В настоящее время в России нет единой общепринятой системы антропометрии у детей. Данные отдельных исследований свидетельствуют о том, что число детей с повышенной массой тела и ожирением в РФ может достигать 10%. Основные факторы риска ожирения во внутриутробном периоде и в первый год жизни ребенка: курение матери во время беременности, быстрый набор массы тела ребенка в первый год жизни, искусственное вскармливание и раннее введение прикорма. В более старшем возрасте основными факторами риска являются высококалорийное питание, недостаточность физических упражнений и малоподвижный образ жизни. Международное экспертное сообщество определило стратегии профилактики, которые будут способствовать ликвидации проблемы ожирения у детей. Эти стратегии включают внедрение единой системы оценки физического развития ребенка с измерением индекса массы тела в соответствии с рекомендациями Всемирной организации здравоохранения; подготовка педиатров к использованию этой системы и эффективному консультированию по профилактике ожирения; программы профилактики ожирения среди детей в школах. Необходимо, чтобы врачи и педагоги понимали важность профилактики ожирения для здоровья ребенка. Руководители здравоохранения и образования должны активно поддерживать профилактические мероприятия и обеспечивать общедоступность физических упражнений и здорового питания в школах. Программа «Альфа-Эндо» будет способствовать всем этим инициативам.

Об авторах

Анна Викторовна Карпушкина
Фонд поддержки и развития филантропии «КАФ»
Россия
доктор медицинских наук
Конфликт интересов: Авторы декларируют отсутствие конфликта интересов, в связи с данными, изложенными в статье.


Мария Станиславовна Панкратова
ФГБУ «Эндокринологический научный центр» Минздpава России
Россия
кандидат медицинских наук, ведущийнаучный сотрудник отделения опухолей института детской эндокринологии


Список литературы

1. Россия: Рано умирать. Доклад Всемирного банка. 2006. [Rossija: Rano umirat’. Doklad Vsemirnogo banka. 2006.].

2. Петеркова В.А., Васюкова О.В. К вопросу о новой классификации ожирения у детей и подростков // Проблемы Эндокринологии. - 2015. - Т. 61. - №2 - C. 39-44. [Peterkova VA, Vasyukova OV. About the new classification of obesity in the children and adolescents. Probl Endokrin (Mosc). 2015;61(2):39-44.]. doi: 10.14341/probl201561239-44.

3. World Health Organization. Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity. ENDING CHILDHOOD OBESITY; 2016. Available on: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204176/1/ 9789241510066_eng.pdf?ua=1

4. Григорьева М.А. Россияне на весах. // Демоскоп. — 2012. — №529–530. — С. 1-30. [Grigor’eva MA. Rossijane na vesah. Demoskop. 2012;529–530:1-30. (In Russ.)].

5. Доступно по ссылке: http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2012/0529/demoscope529.pdf

6. Колосницына М.Г. Анализ факторов здорового образа жизни: выводы для государственной политики. [Kolosnicyna MG. Analiz faktorov zdorovogo obraza zhizni: vyvody dlja gosudarstvennoj politiki. (In Russ.)]. Доступно по ссылке: http://2020strategy.ru

7. Проблема ожирения в Европейском регионе ВОЗ и стратегии ее решения. Под ред. Francesco Branca, Haik Nikogosian и Tim Lobstein. — Всемирная организация здравоохранения, 2009. [Branca F, Nikogosian H, Lobstein T, editors. The challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and the strategies for response. WHO. 2009. (In Russ.)].

8. Доступно по ссылке: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/74747/E90711R.pdf

9. Дети в России. 2009: Стат. сб. / ЮНИСЕФ, Росстат. — М.: ИИЦ «Статистика России», 2009. – 121 с. [Children in Russia. 2009: Stat. sb. UNICEF, Rosstat. Moscow: IIC «Statistika Rossii», 2009. 121 p. (In Russ.)].

10. Шадрин С.А., Статова А.В., Привалова Т.Е. Ожирение у детей. // Педиатрия. Приложение к журналу Сonsilium Medicum. — 2013. — №4. — С. 37-40. [Shadrin SA, Statova AV, Privalova TE. Ozhirenie u detey. Consilium medicum. Pediatriya. 2013;4:37-40. (In Russ.)].

11. Malievsky O.A., Maslova N.G. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents // Hormone Research in Pediatrics — 2013.— Vol.80, Suppl.— P.392.

12. Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, et al. Predicting Obesity in Young Adulthood from Childhood and Parental Obesity. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(13):869-873. doi: 10.1056/nejm199709253371301.

13. Serdula MK, Ivery D, Coates RJ, et al. Do Obese Children Become Obese Adults? A Review of the Literature. Preventive Medicine. 1993;22(2):167-177. doi: 10.1006/pmed.1993.1014.

14. Guo SS, Wu W, Chumlea WC, Roche AF. Predicting overweight and obesity in adulthood from body mass index values in childhood and adolescence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(3):653-658.

15. Gillman MW, Ludwig DS. How Early Should Obesity Prevention Start? New England Journal of Medicine. 2013;369(23):2173-2175. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1310577.

16. Heitmann BL, Kaprio J, Harris JR, et al. Are genetic determinants of weight gain modified by leisure-time physical activity? A prospective study of Finnish twins. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(3):672-678.

17. Burke V, Beilin LJ, Simmer K, et al. Predictors of body mass index and associations with cardiovascular risk factors in Australian children: a prospective cohort study. Int J Obes. (Lond). 2005;29(1):15-23. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802750.

18. Elgar FJ, Roberts C, Moore L, Tudor-Smith C. Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and weight problems in adolescents in Wales. Public Health. 2005;119(6):518-524. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2004.10.011.

19. Datar A, Sturm R. Physical education in elementary school and body mass index: evidence from the early childhood longitudinal study. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(9):1501-1506. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.94.9.1501.

20. Harder T, Bergmann R, Kallischnigg G, Plagemann A. Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: a metaanalysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;162(5):397-403. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwi222.

21. Li R, Fein SB, Grummer-Strawn LM. Association of breastfeeding intensity and bottle-emptying behaviors at early infancy with infants’ risk for excess weight at late infancy. Pediatrics. 2008;122 Suppl 2:S77-S84. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1315j.

22. Malik VS, Pan A, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(4):1084-1102. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.058362.

23. DeBoer MD, Scharf RJ, Demmer RT. Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in 2- to 5-year-old children. Pediatrics. 2013;132(3):413-420. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0570.

24. Dehghan M, Akhtar-Danesh N, Merchant AT. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutr J. 2005;4:24. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-4-24.

25. Lobstein T, Baur L, Uauy R, TaskForce IIO. Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obes Rev. 2004;5 Suppl 1:4-104. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2004.00133.x.

26. Freedman DS, Mei Z, Srinivasan SR, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweight children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Pediatr. 2007;150(1):12-17 e12. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.08.042.

27. Whitlock EP, Williams SB, Gold R, et al. Screening and interventions for childhood overweight: a summary of evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Pediatrics. 2005;116(1):e125-e144. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0242.

28. Taylor ED, Theim KR, Mirch MC, et al. Orthopedic complications of overweight in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2006;117(6):2167-2174. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-1832.

29. Dietz WH. Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics. 1998;101(3 Pt 2):518-525.

30. Baker JL, Olsen LW, Sorensen TI. Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(23):2329-2337. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa072515.

31. Nathan BM, Moran A. Metabolic complications of obesity in childhood and adolescence: more than just diabetes. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008;15(1):21-29. doi: 10.1097/MED.0b013e3282f43d19.

32. Juonala M, Magnussen CG, Berenson GS, et al. Childhood adiposity, adult adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(20):1876-1885. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1010112.

33. Ezzati M. Comparative quantification of health risks: sexual and reproductive health. Vol 2. World Health Organization. 2004.

34. Wiseman M. The second World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research expert report. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Proc Nutr Soc. 2008;67(3):253-256. doi: 10.1017/S002966510800712X.

35. Danielsson P, Kowalski J, Ekblom O, Marcus C. Response of severely obese children and adolescents to behavioral treatment. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(12):1103-1108. doi: 10.1001/2013.jamapediatrics.319.

36. Doak CM, Visscher TL, Renders CM, Seidell JC. The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a review of interventions and programmes. Obes Rev. 2006;7(1):111-136. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00234.x.

37. Brownell K. Exercise in the treatment of obesity. In: Fairburn CG, Brownell KD. Eating disorders and obesity: A comprehensive handbook. Guilford Press. 2005;473-478.

38. De Onis M. WHO child growth standards: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age. WHO. 2006.

39. Wang Y. Standard definition of child overweight and obesity worldwide. BMJ. 2000;321(7269):1158-1158. doi: 10.1136/bmj.321.7269.1158.

40. Barlow SE, Expert C. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics. 2007;120 Suppl 4:S164-S192. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2329C.

41. Use of World Health Organization and CDC Growth Charts for Children Aged 0–59 Months in the United States (Excerpt). Clinical Lactation. 2011;2(2):11-13. doi: 10.1891/215805311807011638.

42. Витебская А.В. Стандарты роста и развития детей от 0 до 5 лет. История создания и особенности применения // Доктор.Ру. — 2015. — №13. — С. 80-84. [Vitebskaya AV. Growth Standards for Children under Five: History of Development and Specific Approaches to Their Use. Doktor Ru. 2015;13:80-84. (In Russ.)].

43. de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, et al. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85(9):660-667. doi: 10.2471/BLT.07.043497.

44. Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ. 2000;320(7244):1240-1243. doi: 10.1136/bmj.320.7244.1240.

45. de Onis M, Habicht JP. Anthropometric reference data for international use: recommendations from a World Health Organization Expert Committee. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1996;64(4):650-658.

46. Lopes HMdS. Diagnostic accuracy of CDC, IOTF and WHO criteria for obesity classification, in a Portuguese school-aged children population. 2012.

47. Monasta L, Lobstein T, Cole TJ, et al. Defining overweight and obesity in pre-school children: IOTF reference or WHO standard? Obes Rev. 2011;12(4):295-300. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00748.x.

48. Pelegrini A, Silva DA, Gaya AC, Petroski EL. Comparison of three criteria for overweight and obesity classification in Brazilian adolescents. Nutr J. 2013;12:5. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-5.

49. Wang Y, Wang JQ. A comparison of international references for the assessment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity in different populations. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(10):973-982. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601415.

50. Zimmermann MB, Gubeli C, Puntener C, Molinari L. Detection of overweight and obesity in a national sample of 6-12-y-old Swiss children: accuracy and validity of reference values for body mass index from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the International Obesity Task Force. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(5):838-843.

51. Gonzalez-Casanova I, Sarmiento OL, Gazmararian JA, et al. Comparing three body mass index classification systems to assess overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2013;33(5):349-355. doi: 10.1590/S1020-49892013000500006.

52. Петеркова В.А., Швабский О.Р., Карпушкина А.В., Витебская А.В. Отчет об основных результатах исследования потребностей пациентов с сахарным диабетом первого типа и системы здравоохранения для улучшения качества медико-социальной помощи детям с эндокринными заболеваниями. Программа «Альфа-Эндо», 2015. [Peterkova VA, Shvabskij OR, Karpushkina AV, Vitebskaya AV. Otchet ob osnovnyh rezul’tatah issledovanija potrebnostej pacientov s saharnym diabetom pervogo tipa i sistemy zdravoohranenija dlja uluchshenija kachestva mediko-social’noj pomoshhi detjam s jendokrinnymi zabolevanijami. Programma «Alfa-Endo». 2015. (In Russ.)].

53. Butland B, Jebb S, Kopelman P, et al. Tackling Obesities: future choices report. 2nd Edition. UK Government’s Foresight Programme. 2007.

54. De Bourdeaudhuij I, Van Cauwenberghe E, Spittaels H, et al. School-based interventions promoting both physical activity and healthy eating in Europe: a systematic review within the HOPE project. Obes Rev. 2011;12(3):205-216. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00711.x.

55. Centre for Public Health Excellence at NICE (UK), National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care (UK). National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence: Guidance. Obesity: The Prevention, Identification, Assessment and Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults and Children. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK). 2006. Available on URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK63702/

56. Prochaska J, Johnson, S, Lee P. The transtheoretical model of behavior change. In: Schumaker S, Schron E, Ockene J, McBee W, editors. The Handbook of Health Behavior Change. 2nd ed. New York: Springer. 1998.

57. Hastings G, Stead M, McDermott L, et al. Review of research on the effects of food promotion to children. Citeseer. 2003.

58. O’Loughlin J, Paradis G, Meshefedjian G, Kishchuk N. Evaluation of an 8-week mailed healthy-weight intervention. Prev Med. 1998;27(2):288-295. doi: 10.1006/pmed.1998.0265.

59. Five-a-day pilot initiatives: executive summary of the pilot initiatives evaluation study. London: Department of Health. 2003.

60. Wardle J, Rapoport L, Miles A, et al. Mass education for obesity prevention: the penetration of the BBC’s ‘Fighting Fat, Fighting Fit’ campaign. Health Educ Res. 2001;16(3):343-355. doi: 10.1093/her/16.3.343.

61. Tudor-Smith C, Nutbeam D, Moore L, Catford J. Effects of the Heartbeat Wales programme over five years on behavioural risks for cardiovascular disease: quasi-experimental comparison of results from Wales and a matched reference area. BMJ. 1998;316(7134):818-822. doi: 10.1136/bmj.316.7134.818.

62. Cavill N, Bauman A. Changing the way people think about health-enhancing physical activity: do mass media campaigns have a role? J Sports Sci. 2004;22(8):771-790. doi: 10.1080/02640410410001712467.

63. Kahn EB, Ramsey LT, Brownson RC, et al. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity. A systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(4 Suppl):73-107. doi: 10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00434-8.

64. Brownson RC, Baker EA, Boyd RL, et al. A community-based approach to promoting walking in rural areas. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27(1):28-34. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2004.03.015.

65. Evenson KR, Herring AH, Huston SL. Evaluating change in physical activity with the building of a multiuse trail. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28(2 Suppl 2):177-185. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2004.10.020.

66. Centre for Public Health Excellence at NICE (UK); National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care (UK). Prevention evidence summary: determinants of weight gain and weight maintenance (‘energy balance’) [Internet]. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK); 2006. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK63689/?report=printable

67. Jepson R, Harris F, MacGillivray S, et al. A review of the effectiveness of interventions, approaches and models at individual, community and population level that are aimed at changing health outcomes through changing knowledge attitudes and behaviour. Cancer Care Research Centre, University of Stirling/Alliance for Self Care, University of Abertay; 2006. Available on URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1893/2382.

68. Behaviour change at population, community and individual levels: NICE public health guidance no. 6. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2007.

69. Huhman M, Potter LD, Wong FL, et al. Effects of a mass media campaign to increase physical activity among children: year-1 results of the VERB campaign. Pediatrics. 2005;116(2):e277-e284. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0043.

70. Merom D, Rissel C, Mahmic A, Bauman A. Process evaluation of the New South Wales Walk Safely to School Day. Health Promot J Austr. 2005;16(2):100-106.

71. Duaso MJ, Cheung P. Health promotion and lifestyle advice in a general practice: what do patients think? J Adv Nurs. 2002;39(5):472-479. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2002.02312.x.

72. Hardcastle S, Taylor AH. Looking for more than weight loss and fitness gain: Psychosocial dimensions among older women in a primary-care exercise-referral program. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 2001;9:313-28.

73. Tai SS, Gould M, Smith P, Iliffe S. Promoting physical activity in general practice: should prescribed exercise be free? J R Soc Med. 1999;92(2):65-67.

74. Vernon D, Brewin M. Doorstep Walks: an evaluation of the impact of a low cost intervention to assist primary health care teams in promoting physical activity. Health Educ J. 1998;57(3):224-231. doi: 10.1177/001789699805700305.

75. Horsefall TIH. Exercise on Prescription: The Wealdon Oasis Programme. UK, Wealden District Council Quality Leisure Services. 1997.

76. Fuller TL, Backett-Milburn K, Hopton JL. Healthy eating: the views of general practitioners and patients in Scotland. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(4 Suppl):1043S-1047S.

77. Hopper D, Barker ME. Dietary advice, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards nutrition in primary health care. J Hum Nutr Diet. 1995;8(4):279-286. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-277X.1995.tb00321.x.

78. Pignone MP, Ammerman A, Fernandez L, et al. Counseling to promote a healthy diet in adults. Am J Prevent Med. 2003;24(1):75-92. doi: 10.1016/s0749-3797(02)00580-9.

79. Ashenden R, Silagy C, Weller D. A systematic review of the effectiveness of promoting lifestyle change in general practice. Fam Pract. 1997;14(2):160-176.

80. Delichatsios HK, Hunt MK, Lobb R, et al. EatSmart: efficacy of a multifaceted preventive nutrition intervention in clinical practice. Prev Med. 2001;33(2 Pt 1):91-98. doi: 10.1006/pmed.2001.0848.

81. Steptoe A, Perkins-Porras L, McKay C, et al. Behavioural counselling to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables in low income adults: randomised trial. BMJ. 2003;326(7394):855. doi: 10.1136/bmj.326.7394.855.

82. John JH, Ziebland S, Yudkin P, et al. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma antioxidant concentrations and blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;359(9322):1969-1974. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)98858-6.

83. Beresford SA, Curry SJ, Kristal AR, et al. A dietary intervention in primary care practice: the Eating Patterns Study. Am J Public Health. 1997;87(4):610-616. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.87.4.610.

84. Worsley A, Crawford D. Review of Children’s Healthy Eating Interventions. Public Health Nutrition Evidence Based Health Promotion Research and Resource Project. Healthy eating programs for children ages 0-15. years. School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences and Deakin University. 2004.

85. McClure J. Motivating prepartum smoking cessation: a consideration of biomarker feedback. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6 Suppl 2:S153-161. doi: 10.1080/14622200410001669222.

86. Lumley J, Chamberlain C, Dowswell T, et al. Interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009(3):CD001055. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001055.pub3.

87. Whitehead D. Health promoting hospitals: the role and function of nursing. J Clin Nurs. 2005;14(1):20-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2004.01012.x.

88. Fuller TL, Backett-Milburn K, Hopton JL. Healthy eating: the views of general practitioners and patients in Scotland. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(4 Suppl):1043S-1047S.

89. Fox K, Biddle S, Edmunds L, et al. Physical activity promotion through primary health care in England. British Journal of General Practice. 1997;47(419):367-369.

90. Hardcastle S, Taylor AH. Looking for more than weight loss and fitness gain: Psychosocial dimensions among older women in a primary-care exercise-referral program. JAMA. 2001;9(3):313-328.

91. Vuori I, Lankenau B, Pratt M. Physical activity policy and program development: the experience in Finland. Public Health Rep. 2004;119(3):331-345. doi: 10.1016/j.phr.2004.04.012.

92. Pucher J, Dijkstra L. Promoting safe walking and cycling to improve public health: lessons from The Netherlands and Germany. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(9):1509-1516. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.93.9.1509.

93. Layfield R, Chinn L, Nicholls D. Pilot home zone schemes: evaluation of The Methleys, Leeds. TRL Report TRL. 2003;586.

94. Newby L, Sloman L. Small Steps, Giant Leaps: A review of the Feet First project and the practice and potential of promoting walking. Environ/London: Leicester. 1996.

95. Painter K. The influence of street lighting improvements on crime, fear and pedestrian street use, after dark. Landscape and Urban Planning. 1996;35(2-3):193-201. doi: 10.1016/0169-2046(96)00311-8.

96. Skjoveland O. Effects of street parks on social interactions among neighbors: a place perspective. J Architect Plan Res. 2001;18(2):131-147.

97. Millennium Bridge and environs: pedestrian impact assessment study. London: Space Syntax Ltd. 2002.

98. Trafalgar Square: comparative study of space use patterns following the redesign of the public space. London: Space Syntax Ltd. 2004.

99. Paternoster Square: comparative study of pedestrian flows following the re-design of the public space. London: Space Syntax Ltd. 2004.

100. Central London congestion charging. Impacts monitoring. Third Annual Report. London: Transport for London. 2005.

101. Jones D. Letting the kids decide. Surveyor. 2001;188(5629):20-22.

102. Wang Y, Wu Y, Wilson RF, et al. Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs: Comparative Effectiveness Review and MetaAnalysis. Rockville (MD); 2013. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK148737/.


Для цитирования:


Карпушкина А.В., Панкратова М.С. Стратегия профилактики ожирения среди детей школьного возраста (обзор литературы). Проблемы Эндокринологии. 2016;62(2):52-60. https://doi.org/10.14341/probl201662252-60

For citation:


Karpushkina A.V., Pankratova M.S. Strategy for obesity prevention among school-age children (literature review). Problems of Endocrinology. 2016;62(2):52-60. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.14341/probl201662252-60

Просмотров: 175


ISSN 0375-9660 (Print)
ISSN 2308-1430 (Online)